The Big Picture: Taking a Holistic View of Dust Control in Mining Operations

Dust control in mining is a crucial aspect of maintaining a safe and healthy work environment for miners, as well as protecting the surrounding communities and environment. Along with the internal hazard mitigation control regulatory bodies have also established strict guidelines and standards to ensure that mining companies are taking the necessary steps to minimize dust emissions and mitigate the associated risks.

Understanding Dust Sources

In order to effectively manage dust control in mining operations, it is crucial to first understand the various sources of dust generation. Dust can originate from a wide range of activities and processes in the mining environment. By identifying these sources, quantifying the magnitude of emissions and understanding the level of potential exposure to the Dust hazards appropriate control measures can be taken to minimize dust emissions to improve compliance and safety outcomes. A holistically approach also assist in   more efficient investment and operational outcomes.

The following are some of the primary sources of dust in mining operations:

Drilling and blasting: The process of drilling and blasting rock to extract minerals generates significant amounts of dust. The dust particles released during these operations can vary in size and composition, depending on the type of rock being extracted and the drilling and blasting techniques used.

Material handling and transportation: The movement of mined ores and waste rock, can generate dust as particles are disturbed and become airborne. This occurs during loading and unloading activities.  Unpaved roads and heavy vehicle traffic within the mining site can be significant sources of dust which are often more problematic the dust generated by processing activity. As vehicles travel along these roads, they can disturb and disperse dust particles, particularly if the road surface has high silt levels, is dry and poorly maintained.

Crushing, Screening, Grinding and Conveying: The processing ores to release valuable minerals generates a substantial amount of dust. As the ore is broken down into smaller particles, fine dust particles can be released, which leads to high dust emission rates. This is exacerbated by the high kinetic energies often associated with these processing activities.

Stockpiles and storage areas: Dust can be generated from stockpiles of mined materials, as well as from storage areas for waste rock, and other byproducts of mining operations. Wind erosion can cause dust particles to become airborne, particularly with high fines content and large material fall heights in dry and windy conditions.

Roads and traffic

Construction and maintenance activities: Construction and maintenance work within the mining site, such as building new infrastructure or shutdown maintenance can generate dust from earthmoving activities, cutting and grinding, and other processes. Dust exposure for these workgroups if often in excess of other work groups on suite.

Tailings management: The disposal and storage of tailings, which are the waste materials left after valuable minerals have been extracted from the ore, can be a significant source of dust. Tailings are often stored in large impoundments or dams, where wind erosion can cause dust particles to become airborne.

By understanding the various sources of dust in mining operations, effective dust control strategies can be developed and implemented to minimize the impact of dust on the environment, worker health, and overall operational efficiency.

Health & Environmental Impacts of Dust

The presence of dust in mining operations can have significant health and environmental consequences if not properly managed. By understanding these impacts, mining companies can develop and implement effective strategies to mitigate the risks associated with dust. Below are some of the key health and environmental impacts of dust in mining:

Respiratory health issues: Prolonged exposure to airborne dust particles can lead to respiratory health problems for mine workers and nearby communities. Dust particles can be inhaled into the lungs, causing irritation and inflammation, which can result in conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory illnesses. In some cases, exposure to certain types of dust, such as silica dust, can lead to more severe health issues like silicosis, a progressive and potentially fatal lung disease.

Visibility reduction: Dust generated by mining operations can reduce visibility, both within the mining site and in surrounding areas. Reduced visibility can create safety hazards for mine workers, as well as drivers on nearby roads, increasing the risk of accidents and incidents.

Soil and water contamination: Dust particles can settle on soil and water bodies, leading to contamination and potential harm to the local ecosystem. This can affect plant growth and the health of aquatic life, as well as the quality of water resources used by local communities for drinking and irrigation.

Air quality degradation: Dust emissions from mining operations contribute to air pollution, which can have negative effects on the health of people living near the mine site, as well as on the environment. Air pollution has been linked to a range of health issues, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and can also contribute to climate change by affecting the Earth’s radiation balance.

Habitat destruction and biodiversity loss: The generation of dust can contribute to the loss of habitats and biodiversity, as dust deposition can alter the physical and chemical properties of the environment. This can lead to changes in the composition of plant and animal communities, and in some cases, the loss of sensitive species.

Community relations and social impacts: Excessive dust emissions from mining operations can negatively affect the quality of life for nearby communities, leading to complaints and potential conflicts between mining companies and local residents. This can result in reputational damage for the mining company, as well as increased regulatory scrutiny and potential legal challenges.

Compliance with Regulations

Given the increased risk requirements, it is important for the mining company to determine whether their systems are compliant with current regulations and if not, what steps could be taken to mitigate risk.

National guidelines for environmental pollutants are set by the Department of Climate Change, Energy, the Environment and Water.  These guidelines set environmental limits and major mining operators are required to report emission to the National Pollution Inventory.  In addition, Safe work Australia have developed a comprehensive set of Workplace Exposure Standards that define maximum exposure levels for various contaminants.  These regulatory obligations are also complemented by regional authorities which often prescribe mining specific obligations.

Of particular relevance for many mining operations is the Increased focus on Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS). The prescribed OEL for RSC was reduced from 1 mg/m3 to 0.0 5mg/m3 in 2020. This is set to be reduced further to the health-based recommendation of 0.02 mg/m3 over the next three years.

As a result of these changes, the RSC fraction of the dust becomes the controlling factor in determining the OEL whereas previously higher levels for total dust may have been applied. This means that many site that may of previously technically complied may need to review the controls.

How Wave International can help

As a resource development consultant with over two decades of global experience in engineering, project delivery, project, and asset management, Wave International has proven its capability to provide comprehensive site-wide studies of dust control management practices within the mining industry. Our reputation in the engineering services, the expertise of Wave personnel in the field of dust management, and the ability to upscale the services offered to assist with feasibility studies that may arise during the process, have been proven in the field.

Compliance with dust control regulations is crucial for the health and safety of workers, environmental protection, and the overall success of mining companies. By implementing best practices for dust control and regularly monitoring and assessing dust emissions, mining companies can ensure they are meeting regulatory requirements and demonstrating their commitment to responsible mining practices.

For more information on how we can customize solutions for your mining operations, please contact us at

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